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英格兰银行在伦敦伦敦,英国
英格兰银行在伦敦伦敦,英国。 Credit: Simon Belcher / Alamy Stock Photo.
UK POLICY
3 March 202117.:55

Budget 2021: Key climate and energy announcements

Carbon Brief Staff

Multiple Authors

03.03.21.
英国政策 Budget 2021: Key climate and energy announcements

英国的总理Rishi Sunak已经在冠状病毒大流行病的云下发出了第二次预算,并在举办COP26联合国气候谈判的国家前面的最后之前。乐动体育正规吗

与此相反去年的发言,孙子speechand budget “红色的书“对气候变化和英国的净零目标提供了更少的空间。红皮书仅使用“气候”一词nine times,去年31次,七个出场,为“净零”,下降17。

然而,在红皮书中,气候变化和净零的功能相对突出,这表示:“预算为强大的复苏和更环保的经济奠定了基础,平衡了该国的各个国家和英国各地的繁荣。”

值得注意的是,净零已经成为政府整体的一部分“economic policy objective“。这将其进入了英格兰银行的汇款monetaryand财务政策委员会。预算也推出了一个新的National Infrastructure Bank, which has £22bn of “financial capacity” as well as tackling climate change as one of two core objectives.

其他与气候相关的公告是relatively fewand之间的距离。正如预期的那样,预算冻结了第11年的燃油税。Sunak还承诺释放至少15亿英镑的“green gilts“本财政年度。这些是政府债券,致力于支持净零。

下面,碳简介总乐动体育下载app结了今天预算的所有关键气候和能源公告:

Green finance

In what is being seen as one of the最重要的parts of this year’s budget for climate action, Sunak announced that the UK’s net-zero goal will be added to the remit of the Bank of England, having become part of the government’s overall “economic policy objective”.

Inoneofletters to the Bank of England’s governor Andrew Bailey, Sunak writes:

“我今天正在更新MPC的[银行monetary policy committee]汇集了政府实现强大,可持续和平衡增长的经济战略,这些经济战略也与向净零经济的过渡过渡并符合其的环境可持续性和符合。“

In the第二个字母, regarding the bank’s财务政策committee, Sunak uses much stronger language to describe the challenge of climate change than he did in hisbudget speech。他写:

“随着世界从大流行恢复,我们也面临着我们气候的小费点。我们净零的世界的转变将意味着在经济中所有部分的系统性变化。这包括通过扩大绿色金融供应,提供支持并使该资助制度支持并使该金融系统能够通过扩大绿色金融的供应,这是气候变化存在的身体和过渡风险的困难。“

The implications of these changes in remit are not immediately clear, but一个潜在的效果可以迫使银行考虑作为其紧急冠状病毒反应的一部分的气候变化风险。乐动体育正规吗去年,银行忽略了这种风险when buying corporate debt as part of efforts to prop up the economy, leading to criticism from green groups.

Update 4/3: TheFinancial Timesreports that the Bank of England has already responded to the chancellor’s budget by saying that it would adjust its approach to buying corporate debt, to take climate risks into account.彭博also reports the news, saying the bank “will seek to start greening its corporate bond-buying program from the end of the year”.

The budget promises that the government will issue its first “sovereign green bond – or green gilt” in summer 2021, a move it had already announced last November. At least £15bn in government debt will be specifically earmarked for supporting “green objectives”, with further details of how it can be spent coming in June.

在A.other movetrailed在今天的预算之前,Sunak还在2021年夏季宣布了“绿色零售储蓄产品”,该产品将“让所有英国储助商有机会参与解决气候变化的集体努力”。提出的金钱将根据与政府的新绿色吉尔特相同的规则来花费。

Separately, the chancellor’s budget announces a “carbon markets working group”, which the red book says has the aim of “positioning the UK and the City of London as the leading global market for high quality voluntarycarbon offsets“。

Infrastructure

预算包括对英国基础设施项目支出的各种承诺,以及孙某叫做国家的“first-ever” infrastructure bank.

In hisspeech苏格说,英国说道“future economy needs investment in green industries” and, to this end, he said the bank would be established in Leeds “to finance the green industrial revolution”.

他补充说,它将在春季开始,初步提供12亿英镑的资金和保证额外10亿英镑的债务的能力,期望它将支持至少40亿英镑的基础设施投资。

Update 4/3: According to theDaily Telegraph,新银行“将提供价值三分之二的贷款和投资,而不是欧盟前任”。据财政部独立的预算责任办公室称,欧洲投资银行每年借入英国的项目平均每年5亿英镑,这与新英国基础设施银行的预期为1.5亿英镑。

虽然校长描述了它作为英国的“首选”基础设施银行,但该国在2012年推出了绿色基础设施银行selling it offjust five years later under Theresa May’s government.

The budget was accompanied by an附加文件outlining the policy design of the new bank, laying out its main objectives to “support regional and local economic growth”, as well as help meet the net-zero emissions target. Describing the bank’s ability, it says:

“It can bolster the government’s lending to local government for large and complex projects and help to bring private and public sector stakeholders together to regenerate local areas and create new opportunities.”

According to the policy design document, the bank will have £22bn of “financial capacity” to deliver on its objectives, consisting of £12bn of equity and debt capital mentioned by the chancellor as well as the ability to issue £10bn of guarantees.

A further document released to accompany the budget, titled “更好地建立 - 我们的增长计划”, paints a positive image of the government’s plans for infrastructure.

It includes references to the government showing low-carbon leadership at the COP26 climate summit and the supposed “transformational opportunity” for infrastructure provided by Brexit.

The report emphasises the need to “deliver infrastructure projects better, greener and faster”. It adds that the government is committed to ramping up capital spending, as the chart below shows.

历史和计划英国政府资本支出
历史(绿色)和计划(黑色)英国政府资本支出(CDEL,£BN)。资料来源:英国财政部。

It also references the large disparities across the UK in terms of contributions to the national economy, with London and the South East contributing around 24% and 14% of national output, respectively, while the North East and Northern Ireland contribute around 2.5% each.

The budget contains various chunks of money aimed at boosting infrastructure in some overlooked regions.

被提到了Teesside和Humberside作为新的港口基础设施建立“下一代海上风力项目”的位置。(Sunak提到“Teesside”在他的演讲中四次。)

这种支持是previously mentioned作为160万英镑的一部分,总理的10分计划中的制造业和港口基础设施的一部分。

还有5700万英镑的投资来支持苏格兰的工作和绿色增长。这包括“Aberdeen能源过渡区”2700万英镑,旨在将东北苏格兰转变为近海风的枢纽Aberdeento的“全球水下枢纽”和500万英镑提高了其海底工程能力。

Anglesey的“Holyhead Hydolog Hub”将获得4.8米的英镑,以“使用可再生能源的氢气创建氢气,作为重型货车的零排放燃料”,政府表示将创造“高熟练的绿色工作”“。

从去年的预算中提到了英格兰的5.2亿英镑洪水和沿海防御计划,这将于今年4月开始在沃尔瑟姆修道院,桑德兰,普雷斯顿,沃灵顿,索尔兹伯里,罗瑟罕和唐卡斯特的方案。

燃料税

Sunak证实,燃油税将持续冻结。征收汽油和柴油销售的税收,自2011年以来一直以58升,加入增值税。

然而,持续冻结,财政部的预算“红色的书“信号在未来潜在的上升。它说:“Future fuel duty rates will be considered in the context of the UK’s commitment to reach net-zero emissions by 2050.”

根据政府自己的说法,最新的冻结将使财政部每年跌幅近1亿英镑损失收入政策花费, which take account of “an increase in [fuel] consumption in response to lower fuel price increases”.

随着下面的图表显示,燃料税额现在已经被冻结了十多年来,而不是通货膨胀。这是驾驶者的大量减税,连续冻结,每年增加超过10亿英镑,并且财政部费用more than £100bn总共。

The actual rate of fuel duty, in pence per litre not adjusted for inflation, between 2008 and today
The actual rate of fuel duty, in pence per litre not adjusted for inflation, between 2008 and today (thick red line). Planned increases, cancelled at successive budget statements over the period, are shown in shades of blue. Note the truncated y-axis. Source:Institute for Fiscal Studiesand商业,能源和产业战略部。Chart by Carbon Brief usingHighcharts

在A.October 2019 reporton the taxation of motoring, theInstitute for Fiscal Studies说:“没有案例的经常性仪式......燃料职责的计划通胀升高一年后一再取消。”

与驾驶价格的实际削减相比,公共交通票价经常升起faster than inflation,创建不断增加的成本差异。确认轨道最新增加1%以上的通货膨胀率高出1%,government said12月份,它“反映了需要继续投资[铁路]网络的现代化”。

According to theZero Carbon Campaign, which is calling for “a proper price on carbon…more broadly across the UK economy”, there iswidespread supportamong the British public for a carbon tax.它说there is much lower support for fuel duty increases, because of a perception they are an ineffective way to cut emissions.

乐动体育下载appanalysis published last year found that, overall, UK carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were up to 5% higher than they would have been without a decade of fuel duty freezes.

The latest freeze was briefed to the media prior to the budget speech, with the太阳on Monday claiming “a major victory for the Sun’s legendary Keep It Down campaign”.

In hisblogTony Blair Institute for Global Change, former government advisor Tim Lord writes that fuel duty raises around £30bn a year for the Treasury. He argues that while the cost of the fuel duty freeze is large, a bigger problem is the rise of electric vehicles: “[This] is going to eat into fuel duty revenues quickly and we have no plan for how to respond.”

Alongside the fuel-duty freeze, the budget also freezes the rate of车辆消费税(VED, often referred to as “road tax”) for heavy goods vehicles. However, the general rates of VED for cars, vans and motorbikes will rise with inflation, as will空运税on flights.

Inlast year’s budget,Sunak阐述了对减税“红色柴油”的可用性的限制,这些限制在农场和建筑工地上使用。今年的预算包括以下内容咨询,包括稍大的持续豁免。

创新

预算包含少数较小的基金,作为政府的一部分“致力于双重能源创新”。

它们是其1亿英镑的一部分NET-ZERO INN INNONATION POSTFOLIO, outlined in theenergy white paper,此前仅包含竞争为基金直接空气捕捉and排放删除技术

Three competitions to develop new technologies to help achieve net-zero emissions have now been added, specifically £20m to develop漂浮近海风projects, £68m for green energy storage systems and £4m to boostclean energy crops and forestry

Separately, the government announced funding of up to £30m that will provide match-funding for theGlobal Centre for Rail Excellencein South Wales.

This money is intended to “support innovation in the UK’s rail industry, including the testing of cutting-edge, green technology”.

redcar,从盐柏看到的Tees侧风电场由海,北约克郡
redcar,从saltburn被看见的Tees侧风电场由海,北约克郡。信用:克里斯螃蟹/ alamy股票照片

绿色家园补助金

在过去一年中,以气候为中心的政府支出的计划的核心是“green homes grant”, which allows people to apply for vouchers to cover the cost of home insulation or installing low-carbon heating.

大臣first announcedthe £2bn in grants for home-efficiency upgrades, as well as £1bn for improvements in public buildings, as part of his “green recovery” plans in July 2020, although his party’selection manifestohad previously promised £9.2bn for energy efficiency.

然后在总理的促进了这一点10分计划published last November, when a further £1bn and an extra year was added to the existing scheme for home improvements.

However, at the same time,stories通过困难的计划出现了一个计划,公司向未付和客户等待几个月来利用补助金。

After much speculation, reports surfaced in February that the governmentdid not intend将大多数未提取的补助金卷到下一个财政年度,有效地撤回资金1亿英镑,只需2021至2022英镑就留出320米。

据此,只需6.3%的额外6.3%的家庭留在家庭中。i newspaper。(剩余的500米从原来的2亿英镑is forlocal authorities to spend on low-income households.)

而政府attributedthe lack of uptake to the public’s “understandable reluctance” to “welcome tradespeople into their homes” due to Covid-19, environmental organisations were quick to point the finger at government mishandling.

In a piece forBusinessGreen.,绿色MP Caroline Lucas写道:

“在其非凡的风格中,这一政府已经设法迅速弥补了提供该计划。首先,它授予美国公司的合同似乎彻底无能;然后它在文书工作中扼杀了相互冲突和令人困惑的信息,并且住户只是放弃的许多延误。“

In指导issued ahead of the budget, Environmental Audit Committee (EAC) chairman Philip Dunne said the grant scheme “must be overhauled and given a multi-year extension if it is to meet the government’s target of issuing 600,000 vouchers”.

As it stands,fewer than23.,000 vouchers have been issued despite more than 70,000 households applying for the scheme.

The EAC also advised that there should be VAT reductions on energy efficiency upgrades in homes, as well as on repair services and items that have been recycled.

在绿色家庭赠款周围的激烈辩论之后,关于它对他们的命运所说的预算提前猜测。

As it turned out, neither the chancellor himself nor the entire 107-page budget document made any mention of the grants. However, when contacted by the Financial Times, the Treasury confirmed that much of the original funding had indeed been withdrawn.

Carbon pricing

A太阳article in the run up to the budget quoted prime minister Boris Johnson saying he had no intention of introducing new “meat or carbon taxes” that would impact consumers.

然而,有a lot最近几个月在英国的谈话涉及不同选项的碳定价,特别是在英国之后withdrawal来自欧盟。

While the Treasuryreportedlywould have preferred to implement a carbon tax to replace the EU emissions trading scheme (ETS), the government’senergy white papereventually confirmed that the UK would have its own UK ETS instead.

与欧盟ETS一样,该系统旨在覆盖高发射演员,如发电厂,重工和国内航空公司,这些航空公司将被分配信贷,以发出温室气体,如果他们在超出设定限制时也可以购买它们。

虽然英国ETS的一些细节已经发布,但仍然存在很多不确定性,并且第一次拍卖不会被举行直到19.May.

没有欧盟成员的担忧,英国系统中没有足够的参与者可以有效地运作并帮助削减排放。

然而,政府到目前为止已经含糊不清楚任何计划将其系统联系在其他国家的人,英国“开放国际上的英国ETS开放......但是没有关于我们首选的联系合作伙伴的决定尚未制作“。根据预算文本:

“政府致力于碳定价作为推动脱碳的工具,并打算在2021年的课程中列出扩大英国ETS的其他建议。”

但是,它仍有待观察到的“扩展”计划将需要什么。

The UK also has its own domestic carbon tax in the power sector which goes back to when it was part of the EU ETS, known as thecarbon price support。这是由于欧盟系统下的碳价格低的低碳价格信号,这是最初的。

新预算证实,正如去年的那样,政府已决定在2022-23岁的二氧化碳每吨18英镑冻结碳价格支持。

伦敦英国。25.th April 2016. Aerial photograph of traffic on a Spaghetti Junction on an overcast as rain is forecast in London
伦敦英国。2016年4月25日。在伦敦预测,在阴天的意粉交界处的交通的空中照片在雨中被预测。信用:amer ghazzal / alamy live news

道路建设

Billed as the “largest ever investment in England’s motorways and major A roads”, a commitment to spending £27bn on roadbuilding over the next five years was a key component oflast year’s budget

它也吸引了环境团体批评的人,他们将这一重要金额与在绿色措施上花费的相对较少的数量相比,并质疑如何与政府对净零排放的承诺。

The new budget does not mention the government’s road-building plans at all, although a document released to accompany it, titled “更好地建立 - 我们的增长计划“,几次引用它。

It also emphasises the government’s focus on promoting “the importance of low-carbon infrastructure” and achieving its net-zero target, one of the “people’s priorities”.

Receive our free乐动体育官网对于过去24小时的气候和能量媒体覆盖范围的摘要,或我们的摘要Weekly Briefingfor a round-up of our content from the past seven days. Just enter your email below:

Environmental consultancyTransport for Quality of Life成立last year that emissions from the scheme would wipe out 80% of the emissions saving from electric cars up to 2032, although the Department for Transport dismissed this analysis as “wholly incorrect”.

However, a recent国家审计署report结论是,“虽然超低排放汽车数量增加以及所需的收费基础设施,汽车的碳排放并未符合政府的初步期望。”

It attributed this, in part, to a rise in the sale of sports utility vehicles (SUVs) and also “increased road traffic and travel by car”. There isevidence建立新道路的交通量大。

与此同时,这是监护人reported in February that the £27bn scheme had been “thrown into doubt after documents showed the transport secretary, Grant Shapps, overrode official advice to review the policy on environmental grounds”.

媒体反应

Much of the media coverage of the budget echoed the concerns of environmental organisations who described it as a “missed opportunity” to take decisive action on climate change.

一个社论监护人说:“缺席的气候紧急情况是显着的”,而一个社论在Financial Timesnoted “there were few concrete measures to ensure that post-Brexit Britain will…achieve its target of net-zero carbon emissions”.

根据“的情况,预算”很少有没有降低排放或解决气候政策的努力部分,“政客

它还指出,大臣”多了half an hour to get to the green section” of his budget speech “despite the tub thumping his government has done over net-zero, green recovery and hosting this year’s COP26 UN talks”.

BusinessGreen.published a piece summarising the response from the “green economy”. Among those quoted is Philip Dunne, chair of the Environmental Audit Committee, who welcomed the National Infrastructure Bank and the expansion of the Bank of England’s remit, but added:

“校长今天错过了一个进一步的机会:减少用于绿色部门的增值税,包括能效升级,并在可再生和低碳能源方面投资更大。”

Financial Timescolumnist Martin Wolf wrote:

“A UK Infrastructure Bank with capital of £12bn will not amount to much. Where is the ambition for investment? Where is the plan for environmental policy? Where, for that matter, is the discussion of carbon pricing? After the massive response to the pandemic, the needed long-term vision for a country facing an uncertain future is absent.”

According to theDaily Telegraph,新银行“将提供价值三分之二的贷款和投资,而不是欧盟前任”。

The newspaper said the European Investment Bank lent an average of £5bn a year to projects in the UK, according to the Treasury’s independent Office for Budget Responsibility, which compared that figure to the expected £1.5bn a year from the new UK infrastructure bank.

几个出版物,包括每日邮件和Daily Telegraph, also reported on the fuel duty freeze, with the former noting it “is likely to increase [in the future] to help the government meet climate change targets”.

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