值得注意的是，净零已经成为政府整体的一部分“economic policy objective“。这将其进入了英格兰银行的汇款monetaryand财务政策委员会。预算也推出了一个新的National Infrastructure Bank, which has £22bn of “financial capacity” as well as tackling climate change as one of two core objectives.
In what is being seen as one of the最重要的parts of this year’s budget for climate action, Sunak announced that the UK’s net-zero goal will be added to the remit of the Bank of England, having become part of the government’s overall “economic policy objective”.
“我今天正在更新MPC的[银行monetary policy committee]汇集了政府实现强大，可持续和平衡增长的经济战略，这些经济战略也与向净零经济的过渡过渡并符合其的环境可持续性和符合。“
The implications of these changes in remit are not immediately clear, but一个潜在的效果可以迫使银行考虑作为其紧急冠状病毒反应的一部分的气候变化风险。乐动体育正规吗去年，银行忽略了这种风险when buying corporate debt as part of efforts to prop up the economy, leading to criticism from green groups.
Update 4/3: TheFinancial Timesreports that the Bank of England has already responded to the chancellor’s budget by saying that it would adjust its approach to buying corporate debt, to take climate risks into account.彭博also reports the news, saying the bank “will seek to start greening its corporate bond-buying program from the end of the year”.
The budget promises that the government will issue its first “sovereign green bond – or green gilt” in summer 2021, a move it had already announced last November. At least £15bn in government debt will be specifically earmarked for supporting “green objectives”, with further details of how it can be spent coming in June.
Separately, the chancellor’s budget announces a “carbon markets working group”, which the red book says has the aim of “positioning the UK and the City of London as the leading global market for high quality voluntarycarbon offsets“。
预算包括对英国基础设施项目支出的各种承诺，以及孙某叫做国家的“first-ever” infrastructure bank.
In hisspeech苏格说，英国说道“future economy needs investment in green industries” and, to this end, he said the bank would be established in Leeds “to finance the green industrial revolution”.
Update 4/3: According to theDaily Telegraph，新银行“将提供价值三分之二的贷款和投资，而不是欧盟前任”。据财政部独立的预算责任办公室称，欧洲投资银行每年借入英国的项目平均每年5亿英镑，这与新英国基础设施银行的预期为1.5亿英镑。
虽然校长描述了它作为英国的“首选”基础设施银行，但该国在2012年推出了绿色基础设施银行selling it offjust five years later under Theresa May’s government.
The budget was accompanied by an附加文件outlining the policy design of the new bank, laying out its main objectives to “support regional and local economic growth”, as well as help meet the net-zero emissions target. Describing the bank’s ability, it says:
“It can bolster the government’s lending to local government for large and complex projects and help to bring private and public sector stakeholders together to regenerate local areas and create new opportunities.”
According to the policy design document, the bank will have £22bn of “financial capacity” to deliver on its objectives, consisting of £12bn of equity and debt capital mentioned by the chancellor as well as the ability to issue £10bn of guarantees.
A further document released to accompany the budget, titled “更好地建立 - 我们的增长计划”, paints a positive image of the government’s plans for infrastructure.
It includes references to the government showing low-carbon leadership at the COP26 climate summit and the supposed “transformational opportunity” for infrastructure provided by Brexit.
The report emphasises the need to “deliver infrastructure projects better, greener and faster”. It adds that the government is committed to ramping up capital spending, as the chart below shows.
It also references the large disparities across the UK in terms of contributions to the national economy, with London and the South East contributing around 24% and 14% of national output, respectively, while the North East and Northern Ireland contribute around 2.5% each.
The budget contains various chunks of money aimed at boosting infrastructure in some overlooked regions.
Anglesey的“Holyhead Hydolog Hub”将获得4.8米的英镑，以“使用可再生能源的氢气创建氢气，作为重型货车的零排放燃料”，政府表示将创造“高熟练的绿色工作”“。
然而，持续冻结，财政部的预算“红色的书“信号在未来潜在的上升。它说:“Future fuel duty rates will be considered in the context of the UK’s commitment to reach net-zero emissions by 2050.”
根据政府自己的说法，最新的冻结将使财政部每年跌幅近1亿英镑损失收入政策花费, which take account of “an increase in [fuel] consumption in response to lower fuel price increases”.
随着下面的图表显示，燃料税额现在已经被冻结了十多年来，而不是通货膨胀。这是驾驶者的大量减税，连续冻结，每年增加超过10亿英镑，并且财政部费用more than £100bn总共。The actual rate of fuel duty, in pence per litre not adjusted for inflation, between 2008 and today (thick red line). Planned increases, cancelled at successive budget statements over the period, are shown in shades of blue. Note the truncated y-axis. Source:Institute for Fiscal Studiesand商业，能源和产业战略部。Chart by Carbon Brief usingHighcharts。
According to theZero Carbon Campaign, which is calling for “a proper price on carbon…more broadly across the UK economy”, there iswidespread supportamong the British public for a carbon tax.它说there is much lower support for fuel duty increases, because of a perception they are an ineffective way to cut emissions.
乐动体育下载appanalysis published last year found that, overall, UK carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were up to 5% higher than they would have been without a decade of fuel duty freezes.
The latest freeze was briefed to the media prior to the budget speech, with the太阳on Monday claiming “a major victory for the Sun’s legendary Keep It Down campaign”.
In hisblog当Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, former government advisor Tim Lord writes that fuel duty raises around £30bn a year for the Treasury. He argues that while the cost of the fuel duty freeze is large, a bigger problem is the rise of electric vehicles: “[This] is going to eat into fuel duty revenues quickly and we have no plan for how to respond.”
Alongside the fuel-duty freeze, the budget also freezes the rate of车辆消费税(VED, often referred to as “road tax”) for heavy goods vehicles. However, the general rates of VED for cars, vans and motorbikes will rise with inflation, as will空运税on flights.
Three competitions to develop new technologies to help achieve net-zero emissions have now been added, specifically £20m to develop漂浮近海风projects, £68m for green energy storage systems and £4m to boostclean energy crops and forestry。
Separately, the government announced funding of up to £30m that will provide match-funding for theGlobal Centre for Rail Excellencein South Wales.
This money is intended to “support innovation in the UK’s rail industry, including the testing of cutting-edge, green technology”.
在过去一年中，以气候为中心的政府支出的计划的核心是“green homes grant”, which allows people to apply for vouchers to cover the cost of home insulation or installing low-carbon heating.
大臣first announcedthe £2bn in grants for home-efficiency upgrades, as well as £1bn for improvements in public buildings, as part of his “green recovery” plans in July 2020, although his party’selection manifestohad previously promised £9.2bn for energy efficiency.
然后在总理的促进了这一点10分计划published last November, when a further £1bn and an extra year was added to the existing scheme for home improvements.
However, at the same time,stories通过困难的计划出现了一个计划，公司向未付和客户等待几个月来利用补助金。
After much speculation, reports surfaced in February that the governmentdid not intend将大多数未提取的补助金卷到下一个财政年度，有效地撤回资金1亿英镑，只需2021至2022英镑就留出320米。
而政府attributedthe lack of uptake to the public’s “understandable reluctance” to “welcome tradespeople into their homes” due to Covid-19, environmental organisations were quick to point the finger at government mishandling.
In a piece forBusinessGreen.，绿色MP Caroline Lucas写道：
In指导issued ahead of the budget, Environmental Audit Committee (EAC) chairman Philip Dunne said the grant scheme “must be overhauled and given a multi-year extension if it is to meet the government’s target of issuing 600,000 vouchers”.
As it stands,fewer than23.,000 vouchers have been issued despite more than 70,000 households applying for the scheme.
The EAC also advised that there should be VAT reductions on energy efficiency upgrades in homes, as well as on repair services and items that have been recycled.
As it turned out, neither the chancellor himself nor the entire 107-page budget document made any mention of the grants. However, when contacted by the Financial Times, the Treasury confirmed that much of the original funding had indeed been withdrawn.
A太阳article in the run up to the budget quoted prime minister Boris Johnson saying he had no intention of introducing new “meat or carbon taxes” that would impact consumers.
While the Treasuryreportedlywould have preferred to implement a carbon tax to replace the EU emissions trading scheme (ETS), the government’senergy white papereventually confirmed that the UK would have its own UK ETS instead.
The UK also has its own domestic carbon tax in the power sector which goes back to when it was part of the EU ETS, known as thecarbon price support。这是由于欧盟系统下的碳价格低的低碳价格信号，这是最初的。
Billed as the “largest ever investment in England’s motorways and major A roads”, a commitment to spending £27bn on roadbuilding over the next five years was a key component oflast year’s budget。
The new budget does not mention the government’s road-building plans at all, although a document released to accompany it, titled “更好地建立 - 我们的增长计划“，几次引用它。
It also emphasises the government’s focus on promoting “the importance of low-carbon infrastructure” and achieving its net-zero target, one of the “people’s priorities”.
Environmental consultancyTransport for Quality of Life成立last year that emissions from the scheme would wipe out 80% of the emissions saving from electric cars up to 2032, although the Department for Transport dismissed this analysis as “wholly incorrect”.
It attributed this, in part, to a rise in the sale of sports utility vehicles (SUVs) and also “increased road traffic and travel by car”. There isevidence建立新道路的交通量大。
与此同时，这是监护人reported in February that the £27bn scheme had been “thrown into doubt after documents showed the transport secretary, Grant Shapps, overrode official advice to review the policy on environmental grounds”.
Much of the media coverage of the budget echoed the concerns of environmental organisations who described it as a “missed opportunity” to take decisive action on climate change.
它还指出,大臣”多了half an hour to get to the green section” of his budget speech “despite the tub thumping his government has done over net-zero, green recovery and hosting this year’s COP26 UN talks”.
BusinessGreen.published a piece summarising the response from the “green economy”. Among those quoted is Philip Dunne, chair of the Environmental Audit Committee, who welcomed the National Infrastructure Bank and the expansion of the Bank of England’s remit, but added:
Financial Timescolumnist Martin Wolf wrote:
“A UK Infrastructure Bank with capital of £12bn will not amount to much. Where is the ambition for investment? Where is the plan for environmental policy? Where, for that matter, is the discussion of carbon pricing? After the massive response to the pandemic, the needed long-term vision for a country facing an uncertain future is absent.”
According to theDaily Telegraph，新银行“将提供价值三分之二的贷款和投资，而不是欧盟前任”。
The newspaper said the European Investment Bank lent an average of £5bn a year to projects in the UK, according to the Treasury’s independent Office for Budget Responsibility, which compared that figure to the expected £1.5bn a year from the new UK infrastructure bank.
几个出版物，包括每日邮件和Daily Telegraph, also reported on the fuel duty freeze, with the former noting it “is likely to increase [in the future] to help the government meet climate change targets”.
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